Biological Diversity Ecosystem Condition and Productivity Soil and Water Role in Global Ecological Cycles Economic and Social Benefits Society's Responsibility
Economic and Social Benefits Distribution of Benefits Sustainability of Benefits
Indicator 5.3.1 - Annual harvest of timber relative to the level of harvest deemed to be sustainable Indicator 5.3.2 - Annual harvest of nontimber forest products relative to the level of harvest deemed to be sustainable Indicator 5.3.3 - Return on capital employed Indicator 5.3.4 - Productivity index Indicator 5.3.5 - Direct, indirect, and induced employment Indicator 5.3.6 - Average income in major employment categories
Indicator 5.3.6 - Average income in major employment categories
supporting indicator


Average income is the annual income earned per person directly employed in the forest sector. As the basis for an indicator, it is therefore closely linked to Indicator 5.3.5. Trends in annual average income derived from direct employment in forest products industries, especially when compared with income levels in other industries, indicate the importance of the sector to the economy and the social well-being of Canadians.

Figure 5.3g presents average income profiles for the forestry and logging subsector (data unavailable for 2000-2002), the wood products manufacturing, and the paper manufacturing subsectors of the forest industry. Real average income is presented for the total number of workers and includes production workers, nonproduction workers, and administrative employees. Constant dollar figures (1999) are used to remove the effect of inflation and to facilitate comparisons over time. Income figures reflect earnings before income tax and social security deductions, and include payment for regular paid work, overtime, paid leave, bonuses, and so on.

Figure 5.3g

Figure 5.3g Real average income for forest subsectors versus all manufacturing. (Source: Statistics Canada 2004)

The real average income performance of the forestry and logging subsector has been modest, compared with all manufacturing industries, experiencing a decline from 1994 to 1999, the last year for which data were available. The wood products manufacturing subsector's real average income closely tracked that of all manufacturing industries up to the mid-1990s, after which it lagged slightly behind. Finally, the average real income in the paper manufacturing subsector has been consistently higher than that of all manufacturing industries.